I was Washington Bureau Chief for the Chicago Tribune and became managing editor in 1971. I began my journalism career in 1948 as a reporter for the City News Bureau of Chicago, where I covered police and court hearings. For the next quarter of a century I had a front row seat to earth shaking shifts in media power as the newspaper industry battled for survival against the rise of television and the start of the digital age. I joined the Tribune in 1950. I served in the European theater in WWII and in 1987 I co-authored Oil & War with Robert Goralski of NBC News. The book tells how the deadly struggle for fuel meant victory or defeat. I am a graduate of Washington University in St. Louis and also attended Knox College in my home town of Galesburg, Illinois.